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New York City (NASA, International Space Station, 05/05/14)

New York City (NASA, International Space Station, 05/05/14)
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Editor’s note: just noticed this really helpful annotated version on NASA’s Earth Observatory: eol.jsc.nasa.gov/EarthObservatory/NewYorkCity.htm

New York City is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 39 crew member on the International Space Station. This detailed image reveals the narrow shape of Manhattan located between the Hudson River and the East River, a feature familiar to crews on the space station. The ragged line of shadow cast by the Palisades cliff crosses the bottom of the image. Wharves jut into the rivers; bridges are visible mainly because of the shadows they cast, and the grid pattern of major roads stands out. On the island of Manhattan itself the main visual features are Central Park (with playing fields as white dots) and two darker zones where the tallest buildings in Midtown East and the Financial District cast strong shadows, even in this early afternoon view. Rivers and parks reduce the effect of the urban heat island – the local zone of higher surface and atmospheric temperatures generated by storage and later release of heat by city materials such as concrete and tarmac. Rivers provide pathways for wind and the cooling effect of parks is detectable by instruments on spacecraft that can measure the temperature of the ground surface. Tall buildings have a more complex effect. Shadowed zones in the "urban canyons" between tall buildings – as shown in this image – receive fewer hours of direct sun per day. But where the sun can reach canyon floors, the sun’s energy is reflected back up at the walls of the buildings where it is absorbed and later released as heat. This is especially the case at night when urban canyons retain more heat than those sections of the city with shorter buildings.

Original image:
www.flickr.com/photos/nasa2explore/14402662473/in/set-721…

About Crew Earth Observations:

In Crew Earth Observations (CEO), crewmembers on the International Space Station (ISS) photograph the Earth from their unique point of view located 200 miles above the surface. Photographs record how the planet is changing over time, from human-caused changes like urban growth and reservoir construction, to natural dynamic events such as hurricanes, floods and volcanic eruptions. A major emphasis of CEO is to monitor disaster response events in support of the International Disaster Charter (IDC). CEO imagery provides researchers on Earth with key data to understand the planet from the perspective of the ISS. Crewmembers have been photographing Earth from space since the early Mercury missions beginning in 1961. The continuous images taken from the ISS ensure this record remains unbroken.

Image credit: NASA

More about space station research:
www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/index.html

View more photos like this in the "NASA Earth Images" Flickr photoset:
www.flickr.com/photos/28634332@N05

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These official NASA photographs are being made available for publication by news organizations and/or for personal use printing by the subject(s) of the photographs. The photographs may not be used in materials, advertisements, products, or promotions that in any way suggest approval or endorsement by NASA. All Images used must be credited. For information on usage rights please visit: www.nasa.gov/audience/formedia/features/MP_Photo_Guidelin…

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